The sexual organs are not the only defining parts of a male’s body and in the case of ‘trans-men’ and ‘non-binary’, the genitals are not representative of the gender of the person.
Male anatomy is a term used to refer to the parts of the human body that belong solely to males, rather than to both males and females. The male reproductive organs, for example, are considered male anatomy, but the heart and lungs are usually not.
There are differences that we all have in human anatomy; Men possess external genitalia (the penis, scrotum and testes) for the production and delivery of sperm, and women possess internal genitalia (the vagina, uterus and ovaries) for the production of eggs and the development of human embryos. Most physiological differences between men and women occur due to differences in the endocrine systems during critical periods of development, such as fetal growth and puberty.
The functions of the endocrine systems in men and women lead to other physiological differences throughout life. For example, men produce a more course and visible type of hair follicle called terminal hairs on the chest, abdomen, face and back. Women, however, produce a finer hair follicle called vellus hairs in fewer areas of the body. Hormone production in the endocrine system is also partially responsible for the development and differences of pattern baldness in men and women.
Great differences are also present in the skeletal and muscular systems in men and women. Typically, men possess denser, stronger tendons, ligaments and bones than women, and men generally have more muscle mass. This leads to differences in physical strength and the metabolic processes of calorie expenditure and storage. In comparison, women typically possess a skeletal system that is less robust and smoother in structure than that found in males
Studies that have looked at the anatomical differences in the brains of males and females have focused on:
Total brain size
In adults, the average brain weight in men is about 11-12% MORE than the average brain weight in women. This does not suggest that due to the larger brain, males are smarter than females.
It is reported that a woman’s brain has a larger corpus colosseum, a tissue that separates the right hemisphere from the left hemisphere, which means women can transfer data between these 2 halves of the brain faster than men.
Two areas in the frontal and temporal lobes related to language are significantly larger in women, thus providing a biological reason for women’s notorious superiority in language-associated thoughts and verbal expressions.
Inferior parietal lobule (IPL)
It is a brain region in the cortex, which is significantly larger in men than in women. This is the same area which was shown to be larger in the brain of Albert Einstein, as well as in other physicists and mathematicians. It seems that IPL’s size correlates highly with mental mathematical abilities. Studies have linked the right IPL with the memory involved in understanding and manipulating spatial relationships and the ability to sense relationships between body parts. It is also related to the perception of our own affects or feelings. Moreover; the left IPL is involved with perception of time and speed, and the ability to mentally rotate 3-D figures.
Males on average, have a smaller limbic system than women, and as a result, women are more in touch with their feelings; they are generally more able to express their feelings than men. They have an increased ability to bond and be connected to others.
Many behavioral differences have been reported for men and women. These differences appear in the way men and women:
- Estimate the time
- Judge speed of things
- Carry out mental mathematical calculations
- Orient in space
- Visualize objects in three dimensions
- Process language
- Express their emotions
- Show affection verbally and non-verbally
Socio-biologist, Edward O. Wilson, said that human females tend to be higher than males in empathy, verbal skills, social skills and security seeking, among other things, while men tend to be higher in independence, dominance, spatial and mathematical skills, rank-related aggression, and other characteristics. This may account, scientists say, for the fact that there are many more male mathematicians, airplane pilots and race car drivers than female ones.
Tests show that women generally can recall lists of words or paragraphs of text better than men. On the other hand, men usually perform better on tests that require the ability to mentally rotate an image in order to solve a problem.
Mental rotation is thought to help people find their way. This in no way reflects on women’s abilities in the same area, they are just different. Scientists believe that women may rely on their memory and recall landmarks to find a destination that is men are more likely to navigate by estimating distance in space and orientation, whereas women are more likely to navigate by monitoring landmarks.